• 长难句 = 主干 + 修饰成分

长难句 <--> 主干 <--> 主干的谓语动词

  • 主干(五种结构)

主谓: I will leave.
主谓宾: I love you.
主谓宾宾: I give you a book.
主谓宾宾补: love makes you crazy.
主系表(主补): I am student.

  • 找出长难句主干谓语动词的三步骤(碰到谓语动词就去找对应的引导词,没有引导词的就是主句谓语动词

1、看标点,做预判(锁定主干的位置 —— 聚焦

2、先数谓语动词,再数连词(只数连接句子的连词)

3、推算出主干的谓语动词(有 n-1 个连词就有 n 个谓语动词),一个连词对应一个句子,去掉从句和并列句的连词所对应的谓语动词,剩下的那个就是主句的的谓语动词

  • +

[tabs]
[tab name="时" active="true"]过去时(did) -- 现在时(do) -- 将来时(will)[/tab]
[tab name="一般态(do)"]一般过去(did) -- 一般现在(do) -- 一般将来(will do)[/tab]
[tab name="进行态(doing)"]过去进行(was/were doing) -- 现在进行 (am/is/are doing) -- 将来进行(will be doing)[/tab]
[tab name="完成态(done)"]过去完成(had done) -- 现在完成(have done) -- 将来完成(will have done)[/tab]
[/tabs]

  • 谓语动词的 3 中形式 (英语依赖动词形式变化来体现时态)

(1)各种时态:have (状语) done

(2)语态:be (状语) done

(3)情态动词 + 动词原形

eg: be willing to do。 be willing to 相当于情态动词,do 为动词原形。

例句:The bodies playing major professional sports have dramatically changed over the years,and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniform to fits the growing numbers of bigger,longer frames;

have...changed为主句谓语动词,have been...willing to adjust为并列句的谓语动词

例句:Creating a "European identity" that repects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is not easy task and demands a strategic choic.

可以看到除了 is,其他都有与之相匹配的连词,is 就是主句的谓语动词。

例句:Of all the changes that have taken place in English-lauguage newspapers during the past quarter-century,perhaps the more far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.

推断出has been .. decline是主句谓语动词,虽然其他的看不懂,但选项中有下降的意思的就可以直接选上。

  • 复杂修饰成分(四种)

介词短语:作定语状语

从句:作定语状语

不定式:作后置定语状语

分词:作后置定语状语

  • 词意
           —— 合理性
          |
语境为王 —— 
          |
           —— 完整性(增/减词)
  • 语序
     —— 英汉 基本成分 一致
    |
 —— 
    |
     —— 英汉 修饰成分 语序不一致:倒许(并列处顺序不变)

例一: Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable(不可阻挡的;无情的) decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.

译:在过去的 25(quarter-century) 年里,在英语报纸中发生的所有的改变之中,也许影响意义最深远的改变就是艺术报道范围的缩小和艺术报道严肃性方面不断地减弱。